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La stèle funéraire au Proche-Orient hellénistique et romain : une typologie pour la Syrie du Nord

Abstract : Focusing on northern Syria and south-eastern part of Turkey (Antiochene, Cyrrhestic, Zeugma, Hierapolis, Syrian coast, Apamene, Emesene) from 3rd c. B.C. to 3rd c. A.D., with a typological selection of funerary stelae (corpus of 180 stelae bearing a relief decoration, whether figurative or not), this work intends to highlight the existence, in funerary sculpture, of models and external influences which would have mingled with local uses. A great variety of types characterizing micro-regions is clearly apparent. The main phenomenon is the deep track of Hellenism (even in Roman times), characterized by markers such as reference to the architectural pedimented aedicule, choices of framing (deceased lying on klinè, deceased standing in frontal position), a dress code and posture (palliatus). Markers of Romanity are more difficult to grasp: representation of the deceased as a bust, alone or with the family, the stress on significant accessories (volumen, spindle and distaff). In addition, a large series of stelae bears metaphorical patterns (eagle, basket, wreath) to symbolise the deceased: these are characteristic of the north-eastern part of the area (central Cyrrhestica, Zeugma, Hierapolis) and contemporary there of the bust stelae in the Roman period. Within this series, it was possible to discern different iconographic syntaxes between on the one hand Zeugma, who employs isolated metaphorical patterns to represent the deceased (eagle for men, basket for women), on the other one Hierapolis and Cyrrhestica, where patterns are combined (eagle and wreath for men, eagle and basket for women). This tradition of metaphorical patterns does not seem to relate either to Greek influence or to Roman tradition. Apamene and Emesene are also marked by a tendency towards non-representation of the deceased. The introduction of the bust stela type in a deeply Hellenized territory could not be clearly defined: the role of colonies and of Roman army was questioned, without providing any decisive elements. The exceptional collection of military stelae of Apamea-on-the-Orontes, with its figurative decoration, seems to have developed in an insulated way.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 1, 2022 - 10:18:08 AM
Last modification on : Monday, April 25, 2022 - 10:59:56 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03627185, version 1

Citation

Nicolas Bel. La stèle funéraire au Proche-Orient hellénistique et romain : une typologie pour la Syrie du Nord. Art et histoire de l'art. Université de Lyon, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LYSE2067⟩. ⟨tel-03627185⟩

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