General nomenclature of air leak patterns: A proposal - Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique Access content directly
Journal Articles Sleep Medicine Year : 2023

General nomenclature of air leak patterns: A proposal


Leakage is a common issue with PAP therapy and may contribute to short-term non-compliance with treatment. PAP manufacturers use different methods to estimate and report air leaks (median, mean, p90, p95, % of important air leak, time spent on major leaks), which makes the analysis and comparisons challenging. Leak intensity is a well-known parameter of major importance as it can significantly affect the performance of PAP devices. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding another leakage parameter, namely the leakage pattern. As of now, there is no standard classification for leak patterns in real-life settings. Our objective was to develop and propose a comprehensive nomenclature for leakage patterns observed during nasal auto-PAP therapy. We examined 50 ventilatory polygraphy recordings conducted with auto-PAP, based on data from a prior study in which the unintentional leak flow was precisely measured over time. We have categorized leaks into two main types: continuous leaks, which appear and persist for an extended period, and discontinuous leaks, which vanish more rapidly. Continuous leaks can have both abrupt or gradual apparitions and terminations. Their "shape" can be either interrupted or constant. Discontinuous leaks can have both abrupt or gradual apparitions and terminations. Due to the relatively short observation scale (less than 5 min minutes), this type of leakage is not characterized by a specific shape between apparition and termination. This nomenclature could be a valuable tool that facilitates comparative bench tests or clinical studies. This tool could support manufacturers in developing precise algorithms for leak compensation, residual AHI estimation and the accuracy of CPAP monitoring data. Lastly, establishing a standardized approach for describing and categorizing air leakage patterns could assist clinicians in identifying device-related issues, such as patient discomfort arising from specific types of leakage.
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Dates and versions

hal-04264156 , version 1 (30-10-2023)



Mathéo Richard, Dany Jaffuel, Jean-Pierre Mallet, Raphael Gilson, Maxime Patout, et al.. General nomenclature of air leak patterns: A proposal. Sleep Medicine, 2023, 112, pp.188-190. ⟨10.1016/j.sleep.2023.10.024⟩. ⟨hal-04264156⟩
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