B. Arredi, E. S. Poloni, S. Paracchini, T. Zerjal, D. M. Fathallah et al., A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa, Am J Hum Genet, vol.75, pp.338-345, 2004.

Q. D. Atkinson, A. Meade, C. Venditti, S. J. Greenhill, and M. Pagel, Languages evolve in punctuational bursts, Science, vol.319, p.588, 2008.

G. Berniell-lee, F. Calafell, E. Bosch, E. Heyer, L. Sica et al.,

, Mol Biol Evol, vol.26, pp.1581-1589

R. Blench, Archaeology, language, and the African past, 2006.

E. Bosch, F. Calafell, F. R. Santos, A. Perez-lezaun, D. Comas et al., Variation in short tandem repeats is deeply structured by genetic background on the human Y chromosome, Am J Hum Genet, vol.65, pp.1623-1638, 1999.

K. Bostoen, Pots, words and the Bantu problem: on lexical reconstruction and early African history, J Afr Hist, vol.48, pp.173-199, 2007.

K. Bostoen and C. Grégoire, La question bantoue: bilan et perspectives'. Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris (NS) 15, special issue: tradition et rupture dans les grammaires comparées de différentes familles de langues, pp.73-91, 2007.

K. Bostoen, Shanjo and Fwe as part of Bantu Botatwe: a diachronic phonological approach, Selected Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, pp.110-130, 2009.

Y. , Sub-Saharan Africa

K. Bryc, A. Auton, and M. R. Nelson, Genomewide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, issue.11, pp.786-791, 2010.

M. C. Campbell and S. A. Tishkoff, African genetic diversity: implications for human demographic history, modern human origins, and complex disease mapping, Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet, vol.9, pp.403-433, 2008.

H. M. Cann, C. De-toma, and L. Cazes, A human genome diversity cell line panel, Science, vol.38, pp.261-262, 2002.

F. A. Chami, Roman beads from the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania: first incontrovertible archaeological link with the Periplus, Curr Anthropol, vol.40, issue.2, pp.237-241, 1999.

H. M. Cann, F. Sequeira, C. De-toma, and L. Cazes, A human genome diversity cell line panel, Science, vol.38, pp.261-262, 2002.

M. Coelho, F. Sequeira, D. Luiselli, S. Beleza, and J. Rocha, On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola, BMC Evol Biol, vol.9, p.80, 2009.

F. Cruciani, P. Santolamazza, and P. Shen, A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes, Am J Hum Genet, vol.70, pp.1197-1214, 2002.

C. De-filippo, P. Heyn, L. Barham, M. Stoneking, and B. Pakendorf, Genetic perspectives on forager-farmer interaction in the Luangwa valley of Zambia, Am J Phys Anthropol, vol.141, pp.382-394, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02006808

D. Maret and P. , From pottery groups to ethnic groups in Central Africa, pp.420-440, 2005.

J. R. Denbow, Congo to Kalahari: data and hypotheses about the political economy of the Western stream of the early iron age, Afr Archaeol Rev, vol.8, pp.139-176, 1990.

G. Destro-bisol, F. Donati, V. Coia, I. Boschi, F. Verginelli et al., Variation of female and male lineages in sub-Saharan populations: the importance of sociocultural factors, Mol Biol Evol, vol.21, pp.1673-1682, 2004.

J. Diamond and P. Bellwood, Farmers and their languages: the first expansions, Science, vol.300, pp.597-603, 2003.

G. J. Dimmendaal, Language ecology and linguistic diversity on the African continent, Lang Linguist Compass, vol.2, pp.840-858, 2008.

R. Dixon, The rise and fall of languages, 1997.

M. Eggert, African archaeology: a critical introduction, pp.301-326, 2005.

C. Ehret, Bantu expansions: re-envisioning a central problem of early African history, Int J Afr Hist Stud, vol.34, pp.5-27, 2001.

L. Excoffier, G. Laval, and S. Schneider, Arlequin ver. 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis, Evol Bioinform Online, vol.1, pp.47-50, 2005.

B. M. Fagan, Early trade and raw materials in South Central Africa, vol.1, pp.179-192, 1977.

G. Fortune, The languages of the western province of Zambia, J Lang Assoc East Afr, vol.1, pp.31-38, 1970.

D. B. Goldstein and D. D. Pollock, Launching microsatellites: a review of mutation processes and methods of phylogenetic interference, J Hered, vol.88, pp.335-342, 1997.

V. Gomes, P. Sanchez-diz, A. Amorim, A. Carracedo, and L. Gusmao, Digging deeper into East African human Y chromosome lineages, Hum Genet, vol.127, pp.603-613, 2010.

R. G. Gordon and B. F. Grimes, Ethnologue: languages of the world, SIL International, p.1272, 2005.

J. H. Greenberg, The classification of African languages, Am Anthropol, vol.50, pp.24-30, 1948.

T. Güldemann, R. 2. Vossen, and . Khoisan, African languages: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.99-122

M. F. Hammer, F. L. Mendez, M. P. Cox, A. E. Woerner, and J. D. Wall, Sexbiased evolutionary forces shape genomic patterns of human diversity, PLoS Genet, vol.4, p.1000202, 2008.

B. M. Henn, C. Gignoux, A. A. Lin, P. J. Oefner, P. Shen et al., Ychromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.105, pp.10693-10698, 2008.

C. J. Holden, Bantu language trees reflect the spread of farming across sub-Saharan Africa: a maximum-parsimony analysis, Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol.269, pp.793-799, 2002.

C. J. Holden and R. D. Gray, Phylogenetic methods and the prehistory of languages. Cambridge: The MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp.19-31, 2006.

M. A. Jobling and C. Tyler-smith, The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age, Nat Rev Genet, vol.4, pp.598-612, 2003.

M. Kayser, S. Brauer, and R. Cordaux, Melanesian and Asian origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y chromosome gradients across the Pacific, Mol Biol Evol, vol.12, pp.2234-2244, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00117338

M. Kayser, O. Lao, K. Saar, S. Brauer, X. Wang et al., Genome-wide analysis indicates more Asian than Melanesian ancestry of Polynesians, Am J Hum Genet, vol.82, pp.194-198, 2008.

T. M. Karafet, F. L. Mendez, M. B. Meilerman, P. A. Underhill, S. L. Zegura et al., New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree, Genome Res, vol.18, pp.830-838, 2008.

S. A. Miller, D. D. Dykes, and H. F. Polesky, A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.16, p.1215, 1988.

W. Möhlig, Stratification in the history of the Bantu languages, Sprach Gesch Afr, vol.3, pp.251-316, 1981.

O. Nenadic and M. Greenacre, Correspondence analysis in R, with two-and three-dimensional graphics: the ca package, J Stat Softw, vol.20, pp.1-13, 2007.

K. Neumann, The romance of farming: plant cultivation and domestication in Africa, pp.249-275, 2005.

J. Nichols, Modeling ancient population structures and movement in linguistics, Annu Rev Anthropol, vol.26, pp.359-384, 1997.

D. Nurse and G. Philippson, The Bantu languages. London and New York: Routledge, p.708, 2003.

L. Pereira, L. Gusmao, C. Alves, A. Amorim, and M. J. Prata, Bantu and European Y-lineages in sub-Saharan Africa, Ann Hum Genet, vol.66, pp.369-378, 2002.

A. Pebley, W. Mbugua, and N. Goldman, Polygyny and fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, Fertil Determ Res Notes, vol.21, pp.6-10, 1988.

D. Phillipson, African archaeology, 2005.

D. Quinque, R. Kittler, M. Kayser, M. Stoneking, and I. Nasidze, Evaluation of saliva as a source of human DNA for population and association studies, Anal Biochem, vol.353, pp.272-277, 2006.

L. Quintana-murci, H. Quach, and C. Harmant, Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.105, issue.23, pp.1596-1601, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00271643

J. H. Robertson and R. Bradley, A new paradigm: the African early iron age without Bantu migrations, Hist Afr, vol.27, pp.287-323, 2000.

A. Rosa, C. Ornelas, M. A. Jobling, A. Brehm, and R. Villems, Ychromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective, BMC Evol Biol, vol.7, p.124, 2007.

. De-filippo, Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives, Ann Hum Genet, vol.70, pp.841-847, 2006.

A. Salas, M. Richards, T. De-la-fe, M. V. Lareu, B. Sobrino et al., The making of the African mtDNA landscape, Am J Hum Genet, vol.71, pp.1082-1111, 2002.

B. Sands, Africa's linguistic diversity, Lang Linguist Compass, vol.3, pp.559-580, 2009.

T. Schadeberg, Historical linguistics, The Bantu languages. London and New York: Routledge, pp.143-163, 2003.

M. Sikora, H. Laayouni, F. Calafell, D. Comas, and J. Bertranpetit, A genomic analysis identifies a novel component in the genetic structure of sub-Saharan African populations, Eur J Hum Genet, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00569398

M. G. Thomas, T. Parfitt, D. A. Weiss, K. Skorecki, J. F. Wilson et al., Y chromosomes traveling south: the Cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba-the ''Black Jews of Southern Africa, Am J Hum Genet, vol.66, pp.674-686, 2000.

S. A. Tishkoff, M. K. Gonder, and B. M. Henn, History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation, Mol Biol Evol, vol.12, pp.2180-2195, 2007.

S. A. Tishkoff, F. A. Reed, and F. R. Friedlaender, The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans, Science, vol.25, pp.1035-1044, 2009.

P. A. Underhill, P. Shen, and A. A. Lin, Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations, Nat Genet, vol.26, pp.358-361, 2000.

J. Vansina, Bantu in the crystal ball .1, Hist Afr, vol.6, pp.287-333, 1979.

J. Vansina, New linguistic evidence and the Bantu expansion, J Afr Hist, vol.36, pp.173-195, 1995.

K. R. Veeramah, B. A. Connell, N. A. Pour, A. Powell, C. A. Plaster et al., Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria, BMC Evol Biol, vol.10, p.92, 2010.

W. N. Venables and B. D. Ripley, Modern applied statistics with S, p.495, 2002.

J. D. Wall, K. E. Lohmueller, and V. Plagnol, Detecting ancient admixture and estimating demographic parameters in multiple human populations, Mol Biol Evol, vol.26, pp.1823-1827, 2009.

K. Williamson, The Niger-Congo languages-a classification and description of Africa's largest language family, pp.3-45, 1989.

K. Williamson and R. Blench, African languages: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.11-42, 2000.

E. T. Wood, D. A. Stover, and C. Ehret, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes, Eur J Hum Genet, vol.13, issue.11, pp.867-876, 2005.

L. A. Zhivotovsky, P. A. Underhill, and C. Cinnioglu, The effective mutation rate at Y chromosome short tandem repeats, with application to human population-divergence time, Am J Hum Genet, vol.74, issue.17, pp.50-61, 2004.