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Theses

Use of multi-temporal and multi-sensor data for continental water body extraction in the context of the SWOT mission

Abstract : Spaceborne remote sensing provides hydrologists and decision-makers with data that are essential for understanding the water cycle and managing the associated resources and risks. The SWOT satellite, which is a collaboration between the French (CNES) and American (NASA, JPL) space agencies, is scheduled for launch in 2022 and will measure the height of lakes, rivers, and oceans with high spatial resolution. It will complement existing sensors, such as the SAR and optical constellations Sentinel-1 and 2, and in situ measurements. SWOT represents a technological breakthrough as it is the first satellite to carry a near-nadir swath altimeter. The estimation of water levels is done by interferometry on the SAR images acquired by SWOT. Detecting water in these images is therefore an essential step in processing SWOT data, but it can be very difficult, especially with low signal-to-noise ratios, or in the presence of unusual radiometries. In this thesis, we seek to develop new methods to make water detection more robust. To this end, we focus on the use of exogenous data to guide detection, the combination of multi-temporal and multi-sensor data and denoising approaches. The first proposed method exploits information from the river database used by SWOT (derived from GRWL) to detect narrow rivers in the image in a way that is robust to both noise in the image, potential errors in the database, and temporal changes. This method relies on a new linear structure detector, a least-cost path algorithm, and a new Conditional Random Field segmentation method that combines data attachment and regularization terms adapted to the problem. We also proposed a method derived from GrabCut that uses an a priori polygon containing a lake to detect it on a SAR image or a time series of SAR images. Within this framework, we also studied the use of a multi-temporal and multi-sensor combination between Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 optical images. Finally, as part of a preliminary study on denoising methods applied to water detection, we studied the statistical properties of the geometric temporal mean and proposed an adaptation of the variational method MuLoG to denoise it.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 17, 2022 - 3:38:13 PM
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Nicolas Gasnier. Use of multi-temporal and multi-sensor data for continental water body extraction in the context of the SWOT mission. Image Processing [eess.IV]. Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 2022. English. ⟨NNT : 2022IPPAT002⟩. ⟨tel-03578831⟩

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