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Bacterial Nucleotidyl Cyclases Activated by Calmodulin or Actin in Host Cells: Enzyme Specificities and Cytotoxicity Mechanisms Identified to Date

Abstract : Many pathogens manipulate host cell cAMP signaling pathways to promote their survival and proliferation. Bacterial Exoenzyme Y (ExoY) toxins belong to a family of invasive, structurallyrelated bacterial nucleotidyl cyclases (NC). Inactive in bacteria, they use proteins that are uniquely and abundantly present in eukaryotic cells to become potent, unregulated NC enzymes in host cells. Other well-known members of the family include Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor (EF) and Bordetella pertussis CyaA. Once bound to their eukaryotic protein cofactor, they can catalyze supra-physiological levels of various cyclic nucleotide monophosphates in infected cells. Originally identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ExoY-related NC toxins appear now to be more widely distributed among various γ-and β-proteobacteria. ExoY-like toxins represent atypical, poorly characterized members within the NC toxin family. While the NC catalytic domains of EF and CyaA toxins use both calmodulin as cofactor, their counterparts in ExoY-like members from pathogens of the genus Pseudomonas or Vibrio use actin as a potent cofactor, in either its monomeric or polymerized form. This is an original subversion of actin for cytoskeleton-targeting toxins. Here, we review recent advances on the different members of the NC toxin family to highlight their common and distinct functional characteristics at the molecular, cytotoxic and enzymatic levels, and important aspects that need further characterizations.
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Contributor : Undine Mechold Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, June 17, 2022 - 10:06:46 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 12:03:01 PM

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Magda Teixeira-Nunes, Pascal Retailleau, Martine Comisso, Vincent Deruelle, Undine Mechold, et al.. Bacterial Nucleotidyl Cyclases Activated by Calmodulin or Actin in Host Cells: Enzyme Specificities and Cytotoxicity Mechanisms Identified to Date. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, inPress, 23 (12), pp.6743. ⟨10.3390/ijms23126743⟩. ⟨pasteur-03697630⟩

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